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Dog (Canis lupus familiaris or Canis familiaris) is a cultivated animal. The term is used for both homemade and homeless animals. The Swan Dog was one of the most widely used service and company animals throughout the history of mankind.
According to various estimates, the domestication of the wolf occurred from 100,000 to 15,000 years ago. mDNA testing shows that the evolutionary split between dogs and wolves occurred about 100,000 years ago. The dog quickly became indispensable in all world cultures and was very valuable in early human settlements. In particular, it is believed that successful emigration through the Bering Strait could be impossible without riding dogs. Dogs carry out many kinds of work for people such as hunting, guarding, police and troops, and dogs help to feed herds of cattle, help the disabled and serve company-owned domestic dogs. This universality, more than practically any other animal known to mankind, gave the dog the nickname "the best friend of a person." By estimates, there were about 525 million dogs living on the planet in 2015.
Due to breeding, hundreds of different breeds have been diluted, but now they show more behavioral and morphological differences between dogs of different breeds than in any other terrestrial mammals. For example, the height at the withers can vary from a few centimeters (Chihuahuas) to almost a meter (Irish Wolfhound, a great dance); the color from white to black, including light yellow, gray, brown with a large variety of shades.
The wolf and man have one common feature: they live in packets (social), that is, each one lives in a pack of similar ones to him. They together get food, protect the territory and, in order to coordinate joint actions, communicate with the help of the developed system of signs: sounds, gestures, and poses.
Perhaps, a little wolf could enter into a new, human flock. Apparently, this happened quite often, and the wolf-dogs were useful: they had better hearing and smell than humans, they could growly warn of approaching the enemy, helping to drive the prey. And, perhaps, those who treated the person favorably, did not succumb, did not try to escape, did not show aggression, did not eat right away. Perhaps they lived for a long time and a couple of such "good" wolves even gave offspring - they were born in a friendly way to the people of the wolf.
So, probably, selection, selection, on "good" attitude towards people began, that is, the domestication of the dog began, or, using a more official term, domestics.
According to another version, courageous, friendly-minded and intelligent animals stayed close to a man and fed on the remnants of a great game captured on the hunt. And then they began to join the hunters: they helped drive, stop the beast, as they did in the wolf pack. And friendly-minded wolves who grew up near people began to consider them as members of their flock.
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The wolf and man could find a "common language". No wonder the wolves have taken and raised the human children who were in the woods.
For a long time there was an assumption that the ancestors of dogs could not be wolves, but some other species from the wolf family, such as jackals, coyotes, grizzly wolves, there were even versions of the origin of dogs from hyenas or foxes, etc.
However, the discovery of the last decades in the field of molecular biology branched out into a new science of genetics, has clearly proven that dogs are just a subspecies of wolves. Wolves now live in a variety of environments. Their range, that is, the area of distribution, is very wide. And earlier 10-15 thousand years ago, the wolves were widespread. They were very different - big and small, gray, black, ore and almost white, dark, light, with different patterns on wool.
With the further development of genetics, it was discovered that hereditary information transmitted through DNA or RNA contained not only in cellular nuclei but also in a number of organelles-ancient symbionts, in particular in mitochondria. Unlike nuclear DNA, which is inherited equally from both father and mother, mitochondrial DNA is inherited exclusively on the maternal line. Because of the small size of the sperm do not contain most organelles. Mitochondrial DNA is a pure genetic line that is transmitted only by the female line and is not subject to confusion. Analyzing mitochondrial DNA, it was discovered that all breeds of dogs went from the wolves of the Asian wolf subspecies (which, according to some reports, is a separate species of wolves), from the Levant to India.
Of course, "primitive" half-skinned dogs, traveling along with people all over the world, also married aboriginal wolves, so there are different lines available, but the most important is the contribution of the Asian wolf.
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