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Chameleons (lat. Chamaeleonidae) - a family of lizards, adapted to the tree lifestyle, able to change the color of the body.
Most species have a body length of 30 cm, the largest reach 50-60 cm, the smallest - 3-5 cm.
The head is helical, with a markedly elevated occipital region. Often decorated with more or less convex crests, knolls or elongated, pointed horns. In most cases, all of these formations are developed in males, while females wear rudimentary forms.
The legs are long, peculiarly adapted to the lasagna. The fingers coalesce into two opposing groups of 2 and 3 and have the appearance of "claws" that can tightly embrace the branches of the tree. The tail is thick at the base, gradually tapers towards the end, it can spiral spiral downward and twist around the branches. Most of the family members have this ability with the exception of a relatively small number of species with a short tail. Chameleons have unusual organs of vision. Eyelids of animals accrete, constantly covering the eye, but having a hole for the pupil. The movements of the left and right eyes may be inconsistent, which is important when catching insects, but before attacking the chameleon turns both eyes to prey. Chameleon 3D Model Free have a circular view.
During a hunt, chameleons, as a rule, sit for a long time on the branches of trees. The body of the animal at the same time remains motionless, and the eyes are constantly moving (but sometimes chameleons slowly sneak up on prey). Insects are caught with the tongue with a sucker sucker at the end, the ejection process of which lasts about 1/20 of a second, and with the return to the initial position - no more than half a second. For three seconds, the chameleon can recognize and catch up to four insects. In the "non-working" position the tongue is held by a special bone in the lower jaw. Sometimes the prey is too heavy to hold the tongue; In subsequent times, the chameleon has enough prey of this size by mouth.
Perubahan warna badan
Widely known is the ability of all chameleons to change the color and pattern of the body. The change in color is due to the structural features of the skin. In the outer fibrous and deeper skin layer there are special branched cells - chromatophores containing grains of various pigments of black, dark brown, reddish and yellow colors. With the reduction of the processes of chromatophores grains of pigments are redistributed, and their greatest concentration falls on the center of the cells, while the skin of the lizard itself becomes whitish or yellow. When concentrating the dark pigment in the fibrous layer of the skin, it, respectively, becomes dark. The combination of pigments of both layers leads to the appearance of different color shades. Green colors appear additionally as a result of the refraction of light rays in the surface layer of the skin containing guanine crystals.
As a result of such features, the color of chameleons can quickly change from light - whitish and orange, through yellow and green to purple, and then - completely black or dark brown. These color changes can occur both on the entire body of the animal, and on its individual sections, accompanied by the appearance and disappearance of various kinds of stripes and spots.
These changes in body color of chameleons occur under the action of both external stimuli - temperature, light and humidity, and as a result of hunger, thirst, fright, irritation, etc. The color variations available to the chameleon depend on the preferred habitat characteristic of the species. Chameleons are diurnal, as in a dream they lose control of their skin color, turn pale and become visible to predators.
Often color changes can be combined with a demonstration of a threat aimed at scaring the enemy. Rapid discoloration is also observed in males during the breeding season.
Traditionally, chameleons were thought to change the color of the body for mimicry to the surrounding vegetation. Exploring the variegated mountain chameleon (genus Bradypodion) living in North Africa, scientists concluded that chameleons use color change primarily for communication with representatives of their own species, and not for protection from predators.
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