Model 3d Wolf.
The most likely ancestor of the wolf is Canis lepophagus, a small representative of the canine family with a narrow skull, living in Miocene North America and, possibly, also a former ancestor of the coyote. After the extinction of borophagus, a large canine genus, C. lepophagus increased the size of the body and the width of the skull. The fossil remains of this species found in the north of Texas may belong to the ancestral representative of all modern wolves. The first real wolves begin to appear in the early Pleistocene, about 1,800,000 years ago.
Among them was Canis priscolatrans, a small species resembling a modern red wolf, colonizing Eurasia through Beringia. A new population of Eurasian C. priscolatrans gradually evolved into C. mosbachensis, which has a close resemblance to modern wolves. It was distributed in Europe from the beginning of the Quaternary glaciation to about 500,000 years ago and subsequently evolved into Canis lupus.
Studies of mitochondrial DNA have shown that there are at least 4 wolf's genealogical lines, the oldest of which is the African lineage, which appeared in the middle of the late Pleistocene. The remaining lines belong to the Indian subcontinent. Of these, the most ancient is the line of the Himalayan wolf, which appeared about 800,000 years ago, during a period of major climatic and geological changes in the Himalayan region. The Indian wolf (Canis lupus pallipes) separated from the Himalayan about 400,000 years ago. The latest line is the Tibetan wolf (Canis lupus chanco), a native inhabitant of Kashmir, which appeared 150,000 years ago. It is this line, known as the Holarctic treasure, that spread throughout Europe and North America, as shown by the exchange of DNA markers between the domestic dog, the European and North American wolf.
The now extinct Japanese wolf 3d model is a descendant of a large Siberian wolf, colonizing the Korean Peninsula and Japan in the Pleistocene, when it was still part of mainland Asia. During the Holocene, the Sangar Strait separated Honshu from Hokkaido, causing climatic changes that led to the disappearance of most of the large ungulates of the archipelago, and the Japanese wolf underwent island dwarfism. The Hokkaido wolf (Canis lupus hattai) was noticeably larger than its southern relative, the Japanese Hondoss wolf (Canis lupus hodophilax), having access to larger prey and continuing genetic interchange with the Siberian wolf.
In the late Holocene, Canis lupus recolonized North America. The larger terrible wolf (Canis dirus) that lived there died out 8,000 years ago due to the disappearance of large prey. Competition with the appeared "gray" wolf for small and brisk prey accelerated this process. After the disappearance of the "terrible" wolf, the "gray" increased in size and spread everywhere.
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