Model bakteria 3D

Pameran kesemua keputusan 5

Bakteria adalah domain mikroorganisme prokariotik. Bakteria biasanya mempunyai beberapa mikron panjang, sel-sel mereka boleh mempunyai bentuk yang bervariasi: dari bulat hingga berbentuk batang dan berbentuk lingkaran.

Bacteria is one of the first forms of life on Earth and occurs in almost all terrestrial habitats. They inhabit the soil, fresh and marine reservoirs, sour hot springs, radioactive waste and deep layers of the earth’s crust. Bacteria are often symbionts and parasites of plants and animals. Most bacteria are not described to date, and representatives of only half of the bacterial types can be grown in the laboratory. Bacteria are studying the science of bacteriology – a section of microbiology.

Satu gram tanah, secara purata, mengandungi 40 juta sel bakteria, dan dalam satu mililiter air tawar boleh menemui sejuta sel bakteria. Di Bumi terdapat sekitar bakteria 5 × 1030 dan biomasnya melebihi jumlah biomas haiwan dan tumbuh-tumbuhan. Mereka memainkan peranan penting dalam peredaran nutrien, sebagai contoh, bakteria yang membetulkan nitrogen atmosfera. Mereka juga mengurai sisa-sisa haiwan dan tumbuhan melalui membusuk. Bakteria extremophilic, yang hidup berhampiran sumber hidroterma sejuk dan panas, menjana tenaga daripada sebatian yang tidak larut seperti hidrogen sulfida dan metana. Dianggap bahawa bakteria juga hidup di Mariana Cavity, mempunyai kedalaman 11 kilometer. Terdapat laporan bakteria yang hidup di batuan batu 580 di bawah dasar laut di kedalaman 2.6 kilometer di sebelah utara-timur Amerika Syarikat.

The human microflora is 39 trillion bacterial cells (the human body itself consists of about 30 trillion cells). The most numerous intestinal microflora, the skin is also inhabited by many bacteria. Most bacteria living in the human body are harmless due to the immune system’s containment, and some even benefit. A number of bacteria are pathogenic to humans. Infectious diseases such as cholera, syphilis, anthrax, leprosy and bubonic plague are caused by bacteria. The largest number of deaths is caused by bacterial respiratory infections, and only tuberculosis kills 2 million people a year (mainly in sub-Saharan Africa). In developed countries antibiotics are used not only for the treatment of human diseases, but also in livestock breeding, due to which the problem of resistance to antibiotics is becoming more and more relevant. In the industry, bacteria are used in the treatment of sewage, to eliminate oil spills, to obtain cheese and yogurt, to restore gold, palladium, copper and other metals from ores, as well as in biotechnology, to produce antibiotics and other compounds.